Alcoholism, now known as alcohol use disorder, is a condition in which a person has a desire or physical need to consume alcohol, even though it has a negative impact on their life.In the past, a person with this condition was referred to as an "alcoholic." However, this is increasingly seen as an unhelpful and negative label. Health professionals now say that a person has an alcohol use disorder (AUD).
According to the National Institute of Health (NIH), in 2015, 15.1 million American adults (6.2 percent of the population) had an alcohol use problem.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), globally, 3.3 million deaths every year result from the harmful use of alcohol.
DefinitionAlcohol abuse disorder refers to a long-term addiction to alcohol.The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) describes alcohol use disorder as "problem drinking that becomes severe."
A person with this condition does not know when or how to stop drinking. They spend a lot of time thinking about alcohol, and they cannot control how much they consume, even if it is causing serious problems at home, work, and financially.
Alcohol abuse can be used to talk about excessive or inappropriate consumption of alcohol, but not necessarily dependence.
Moderate alcohol consumption does not generally cause any psychological or physical harm. However, if who enjoy social drinking increase their consumption or regularly consume more than is recommended, AUD may eventually develop.
SymptomsA person who drinks excessive amounts of alcohol will often not be the first person to realize that this is so.
Some signs and symptoms of AUD include:
Alcohol consumption becomes a problem when it takes precedence over all other activities. Dependence can take several years to develop.
The problems linked to alcohol dependence are extensive. The effects can be physical, psychological, and social.
CausesCauses and risk factors include peer pressure, drinking from a young age, and depression.Alcohol dependence can take from a few years to several decades to develop. For some people who are particularly vulnerable, it can happen within months.
Over time, regular alcohol consumption can disrupt the balance of:
Dopamine levels in the brain rise after consuming alcohol. Dopamine levels may make the drinking experience more gratifying.
Over the long- or medium-term, excessive drinking can significantly alter the levels of these brain chemicals. This causes the body to crave alcohol in order to feel good and avoid feeling bad.
Possible risk factorsSome risk factors may also be linked to excessive drinking.
The criteria include having a pattern of consumption that leads to considerable impairment or distress.
At least three of the following criteria should have been present during the past 12 months:
Some signs and symptoms of alcohol abuse may be due to another condition. Ageing can lead to memory problems and falls, for example.
A person may go to the doctor about a medical condition, such as a digestive problem, and not mention how much alcohol they consume. This can make it difficult for a doctor to identify who might benefit from alcohol dependency screening.
If a health worker suspect alcohol may be a problem, they may ask a series of questions. If the patient answers in a certain way, the doctor may then use a standardized questionnaire to find out more.
Tests for alcoholismBlood tests can only reveal very recent alcohol consumption. They cannot tell whether a person has been drinking heavily for a long time.
If a blood test reveals that the red blood cells have increased in size, it could be an indication of long-term alcohol abuse.
Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a blood test that helps detect heavy alcohol consumption.
Other tests can indicate whether there is damage to the liver, or — in males — reduced testosterone levels. Both of these might indicate chronic alcohol consumption.
However, screening with an appropriate questionnaire is seen as an effective means of reaching an accurate diagnosis.
Many people who consume unhealthy amounts of alcohol deny that alcohol poses a problem for them. They may tend to minimize the extent of their drinking.
Talking to family members may help the doctor understand the situation, but they will need permission to do this.
ComplicationsComplications of this condition may include memory loss, confusion, mental health issues, and problems with work or home life.Drinking alcohol usually elevates a person's mood at first.
However, a person who has been consuming unhealthy amounts of alcohol for a long time is likely to become sedated when they drink.
This is because alcohol depresses the nervous system.
Alcohol may undermine a person's judgment. It can lower inhibitions and alter the drinker's thoughts, emotions, and general behavior.
Heavy regular drinking can seriously affect a person's ability to coordinate their muscles and speak properly.
Heavy binge drinking could lead to a coma.
Eventually, regular heavy drinking may cause at least one of the following problems:
Symptoms of Acidosis
Due to fast paced daily lifestyles, eating on the run, people have to face a constantly growing endangerment: the over-acidification (Acidosis) of the body cells, which will interrupt cellular activities and functions. It is a major root of sickness and disease. Having our cells constantly exposed to an acidic environment leads to acidosis!
Studies have shown that an acidic, anaerobic (which is also the lack of oxygen) body environment encourages the breeding of fungus, mold, bacteria, and viruses. As a result, our inner biological terrain shifts from a healthy oxygenated, alkaline environment to an unhealthy acidic one.
When our body pH becomes more and more acidic it starts to set up defense mechanisms to keep the damaging acid from entering our vital organs. In fact. it is a lot of hard work for our body to neutralize and detoxify these acids before they can act as poisons in and around the cells, ultimately changing the environment of each cell.
Unhealthy conditions which can be caused directly by Over-Acidification and are Symptoms of Acidosis are:
It is known that acid gets stored in fat cells. As a defense mechanism, your body may actually produce fat cells to protect you from your overly acidic condition. To protect itself from potentially serious damage, the body creates these fat cells to store the acids and carry them away from vital organs. Those fat cells and cellulite deposits may actually keep acid wastes at a safe distance from your vital organs. Many people have found that a return to a healthy alkaline inner biological terrain helps them losing excess fat*.
Joint Pain and Arthritis
All substances left by the metabolizing process are acidic and toxic; therefore these have to be neutralized by alkalizing elements, e.g. calcium ions, sodium ions, and lithium ions, among which calcium is the most important. Calcium ions are positively charged ions which are constantly looking for acid, to form calcium carbonate in our body. Calcium carbonate is harmless and will be moved out of the body, providing our body fluid pH is alkaline. Otherwise, it is being deposited around body joints. If the calcium ion level is low in the blood and body, excess acid will remain in our body and will lead to numerous health problems, like Join Pain or Arthritis.
Many people think they can eliminate osteoporosis by increasing their consumption of milk and dairy products. But in fact the instances of osteoporosis are rare in countries where the consumption of dairy products is very low. So osteoporosis is a clear acidosis symptom. As the body becomes more acidic, our body tries to remain healthy to protect us against heart attacks, illness, strokes or even cancer. In doing so, it takes calcium from the teeth, bones and tissues, making them weak and brittle.
Yeast and fungus produced in an acidic environment can feed on our nutrients and thus reduce the absorption of everything we eat by as much as 50%. Without protein the body can't produce enzymes, hormones or other chemical components necessary for cell energy and organ activity. This causes people to become very thin, which is not healthier than being overweight. As alkalizing and oxygenating takes place, the body naturally begins to seek its own ideal weight*.
Low Energy and Chronic Fatigue
When having our cells constantly exposed to an overly acidic environment our biological terrain's oxygen level drops, leaving us tired and fatigued. This will allow parasites, fungus, bacteria, mold and viral infections to flourish and gain a hold throughout the body.
If our internal biological terrain is exposed to excessive acidity, bacteria and/or fungi and/or viruses can attach themselves to the inner walls of arteries. This can attract white blood cells, causing proteins and cells to clot. In this way a plaque forms in the artery, thus narrowing the artery and restricting the flow of blood, nutrients and oxygen to the tissues supplied by that artery. Should that happen to the coronary artery, a heart attack may occur.
Allergies are distinct symptoms of acidosis as the toxins produced within an acidic, oxygen deprived environment as well as the absorption of undigested proteins is major cause of allergy conditions. When the digestive system is weakened, a wide range of allergic reactions can occur, e.g. food allergies, and the overall susceptibility to allergens is increased.
There are many different forms of acne, and not few are linked to an unhealthy diet. Especially foods that are highly acidic tend to cause acne.
Frequent Colds, Bronchitis, Infections, Headaches
Only when our pH level is fairly balanced, the binding of oxygen to the hemoglobin protein of our red blood cells in the lungs operates. If the pH is too acidic, microbes in our respiratory systems can grow much more easily, and in that way cause bronchitis, pneumonia and sinusitis, and invade our cell system. This can result in cough, bronchial spasms (asthma), colds, infections and headaches.
Acidosis is an increased acidity (i.e. an increased hydrogen ion concentration). If not further qualified, it refers to acidity of the blood plasma. Generally, acidosis is said to occur when arterial pH falls below 7.35, while its counterpart (alkalosis) occurs at a pH over 7.45. Arterial blood gas analysis and other tests are required to separate the main causes.
Indicated for conditions and symptoms related to dysregulation of the normal ph - acid alkaline balance.
aches and pains
Memory and concentration difficulties-
Greasy, oily skin
Profuse sweating (for little effort)
Early morning bad breath
Waking up numerous times throughout the night-
Joint pain and arthritis
Candida and bacterial vaginosis
Osteoporosis (1) (3)
Since most of us tend toward an acidic pH level as a result of the acid/acid-forming foods and beverages featured in our diets such as meats, dairy, coffee and alcohol, help re-balance our pH levels by eliminating acidic toxins from our bodies.
Our natural physiological blood pH sits at about 7.2-7.4 and is carefully regulated by a range of intricate mechanisms in our body. The collective efforts of buffering agents such as hemoglobin in our blood system (an important transport protein that binds and carries oxygen through the blood to the lungs and tissues) and our powerful buffer systems (carbon dioxide-bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system and phosphate) help ensure that the desirable pH level is preserved in our bloodstream. Blood, the communicating agent governing our circulatory systems directly influences cellular processes in the body. Accordingly, the health of our blood is fundamental to a healthy body system and is regulated by and large by our pH level.
Acids, Bases and pH levels at the Atomic Level Important chemists such as Bronsted, Lowry and Lewis contributed to the development of working definitions for acids and bases that feature the processes of hydrogen ion/ proton (H+) transfer and electron transfer. Collectively, their interpretations suggest that acids are substances able to gain electrons and are equipped with a positively charged proton to donate to an accepting base, should conditions permit/ be conducive to the transfer. Conversely, bases are proton (H+) acceptors/ hydroxide (OH-) donors and electron donors.
Simply put, acids and bases act as chemical opposites. The strength of acids and bases play out in their ability to perform their respective roles in electron/ proton donation and acceptance. So, a strong acid (with a weaker affinity for its proton/H+) is more likely to donate this proton/ receive electrons than a weak acid. Similarly, strong bases have a stronger tendency to accept protons/ donate electrons than their weaker counterparts.
Diets high in meat, eggs and dairy could be as harmful to health as smoking
People under 65 who eat a lot of meat, eggs and dairy are four times as likely to die from cancer or diabetes, study suggests
The study throws doubt on the long-term safety of the Atkins and Paleo diets, which are high in meat, eggs and other sources of animal protein. Photograph: Reuters, science correspondent.
A diet rich in meat, eggs, milk and cheese could be as harmful to health as smoking, according to a controversial study into the impact of protein consumption on longevity.
High levels of dietary animal protein in people under 65 years of age was linked to a fourfold increase in their risk of death from cancer or diabetes, and almost double the risk of dying from any cause over an 18-year period, researchers found. However, nutrition experts have cautioned that it's too early to draw firm conclusions from the research.
The overall harmful effects seen in the study were almost completely wiped out when the protein came from plant sources, such as beans and legumes, though cancer risk was still three times as high in middle-aged people who ate a protein-rich diet, compared with those on a low-protein diet.
But whereas middle-aged people who consumed a lot of animal protein tended to die younger from cancer, diabetes and other diseases, the same diet seemed to protect people's health in old age.
The findings emerged from a study of 6,381 people aged 50 and over who took part in the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) which tracks a representative group of adults and children in the US.
The study throws doubt on the long-term health effects of the popular Atkins and Paleo diets that are rich in protein. Instead, it suggests people should eat a low-protein diet until old age when they start to lose weight and become frail, and then boost the body's protein intake to stay healthy. In the over-65s, a high-protein diet cut the risk of death from any cause by 28%, and reduced cancer deaths by 60%, according to details of the study published in the journal director of the Longevity Institute at the University of Southern California, said that on the basis of the study and previous work, people should restrict themselves to no more than 0.8g of protein a day for every kilogram of body weight, equivalent to 48g for a 60kg person, and 64g for an 80kg person.
"People need to switch to a diet where only around nine or ten percent of their calories come from protein, and the ideal sources are plant-based," Longo told the Guardian. "We are not saying go and do some crazy diet we came up with. If we are wrong, there is no harm done, but if we are right you are looking at an incredible effect that in general is about as bad as smoking."
"Spend a couple of months looking at the labels on your food. There is a little bit of protein everywhere. If you eat breakfast, you might get 4g protein, but a piece of chicken for lunch may have 50g protein," said Longo, who skips lunch to control his calorie and protein intake.
People who took part in the study consumed an average of 1,823 calories a day, with 51% coming from carbohydrates, 33% from fat, and 16% from protein, of which two thirds was animal protein. Longo divided them into three groups. The high-protein group got 20% or more of their calories from protein, the moderate group got 10 to 19% of their calories from protein, and the low group got less than 10% of calories from protein.
Teasing out the health effects of individual nutrients is notoriously difficult. The apparently harmful effects of a high-protein diet might be down to one or more other substances in meat, or driven by lifestyle factors that are more common in regular red meat eaters versus vegetarians. Other factors can skew results too: a person on the study who got ill might have gone off their food, and seen a proportional rise in the amount of calories they get from protein. In that case, it would be the illness driving the diet, not the other way round.
"I would urge general caution over observational studies, and particularly when looking at diet, given the difficulties of disentangling one nutrient or dietary component from another. You can get an association that might have some causal linkage or might not," said Peter Emery, head of nutrition and dietetics at King's College London.
Gunter Kuhnle, a food nutrition scientist at Reading University, said it was wrong "and potentially even dangerous" to compare the effects of smoking with the effect of meat and cheese as the study does.
"Sending out [press] statements such as this can damage the effectiveness of important public health messages. They can help to prevent sound health advice from getting through to the general public. The smoker thinks: 'why bother quitting smoking if my cheese and ham sandwich is just as bad for me?'"
Heather Ohly at the European Centre for Environment and Human in Exeter said: "Smoking has been proven to be entirely bad for us, whereas meat and cheese can be consumed in moderation as part of a healthy diet, contributing to recommended intakes of many important nutrients."
Most people in Britain eat more protein than they need. The British Dietetic Association recommends a daily intake of 45g and 55g of protein for the average woman and man respectively. But according to the British Nutrition Foundation the average protein intake per day is 88g and 64g for men and women.
In a series of follow-up experiments, Longo looked at what might lie behind the apparently damaging effects of a high-protein diet on health in middle age. Blood tests on people in the study showed that levels of a growth hormone called IGF-1 rose and fell in line with protein intake. For those on a high protein diet, rises in IGF-1 steadily increased their cancer risk. Further tests on mice found that a high-protein diet led to more cancer and larger tumours than a low-protein diet.